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Hunger by Knut Hamsun (1890) Translated by Robert Bly

What an astonishing novel! Hunger is the story of the unnamed narrator’s gradual starvation to the point of death in the city of Christiania (now Oslo) in Norway. The narrator is a young writer who doesn’t seem to be able to see his way to any other kind of work but writing. He strays from garrett to stable depending on how much money he has. He haunts the offices of newspaper editors trying to sell articles he has written for pitiful amounts of money. He eventually throws up the food he eats because his system can no longer take it. He grows skeletal. He hallucinates. He imagines his writing is great but he cannot write because he cannot find anywhere to write and hunger makes it impossible for him to concentrate. He is on a path of self-destruction. But he is proud. He gives away money to cake sellers, children, friends. He rejects offers of money because he doesn’t wish to appear weak. Instead he tries to pawn the buttons from his clothing or an old green blanket lent to him by a friend – this is when his carefully constructed moral system is starting to break down. He is perverse: he takes change intended for another customer from a shop clerk, but his dishonesty gnaws at him and he returns to lecture the frightened clerk for his carelessness. It is a book in which, essentially, nothing happens. Except a slow self-annihilation. What is terrifying about the book is the way Hamsun evokes hunger. It made me realize hunger is one of my greatest fears. The little hunger I have known in my life has been terrible. Hamsun captures the inability to concentrate, the deterioration of the mental processes wonderfully. His narrator moves from exhaustion to exaltation in his starvation, heightened enjoyment of nature, euphoria. He rebels against his own existence. A terrifying book. Paul Auster, in an essay on the novel, says, ‘Some new thought about the nature of art is being proposed in Hunger. It is first of all an art that is indistinguishable from the life of the artist who makes it. That is not to say an art of autobiographical excess, but rather; an art that is the direct expression of the effort to express itself. In other words, an art of hunger: an art of need, of necessity, of desire. Certainty yields to doubt, form gives way to process. There can be no arbitrary imposition of order; and yet, more than ever, there is the obligation to achieve clarity. It is an art that begins with the knowledge that there are no right answers. For that reason, it becomes essential to ask the right questions … Hamsun’s character systematically unburdens himself of belief in every system, and in the end, by means of the hunger he has inflicted upon himself, he arrives at nothing. There is nothing to keep him going – and yet he keeps on going. He walks straight into the twentieth century.’ (from The Art of Hunger). A stunning book and hugely influential on literature of the twentieth century.

On Knut Hamsun (from nobelprize.org) [Hamsun won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1920]: ‘Knut Hamsun (1859-1952) was born in Gudbrandsdalen, Norway, and grew up in poverty in Hamar� Nordland. From early childhood he was a shoemaker’s apprentice, but was also a road worker, stonemason, junior-level teacher, and so on. He spent some years in America, travelling and working as a tram driver, and published his impressions, chiefly satirical, under the title Fra det moderne Amerikas Aandsliv (1889) [The Intellectual Life of Modern America]. The novel Sult (1890) [Hunger] and even more so Pan (1894) led to Hamsun’s literary breakthrough and Sult is regarded as the first genuinely modern novel in Norwegian literature.

Hamsun’s work is determined by a deep aversion to civilization and the belief that man’s only fulfilment lies with the soil. This primitivism (and its concomitant distrust of all things modern) found its fullest expression in Hamsun’s masterpiece Markens Gr�1917) [Growth of the Soil]. His early works usually centre on an outcast, a vagabond figure, aggressively opposed to civilization. In his middle period, Hamsun’s aggressiveness gives way to melancholy resignation about the loss of youth. The decay of age is the theme of such plays as Livets Spil (1896) [Game of Life] and Aftenr�1898) [Sunset], as well as of the novels Under H�jernen (1906)[Under the Autumn Star], Benoni (1908), and En Vandrer Spiller med Sordin (1909) [A Wanderer Plays on Muted Strings] ... Hamsun’s admiration for Germany, which was of long standing, made him sympathetic toward the Nazi invasion of Norway in 1940. After the war he was sentenced to the loss of his property, temporarily put under psychiatric observation, and spent his last years in poverty …
From Nobel Lectures, Literature 1901-1967, Editor Horst Frenz, Elsevier Publishing Company, Amsterdam, 1969’

(http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/literature/laureates/1920/hamsun-bio.html)



The Complete List

A. The Theocratic Age

Green I own, Blue I’ve read, Red I’ve read since beginning list.

“Since the literary canon is at issue here, I include only those religious, philosophical, historical, and scientific writings that are themselves of great aesthetic interest. I would think that, of all the books that are in this first list, once the reader is conversant with the Bible, Homer, Plato, the Athenian dramatists, and Virgil, the crucial work is the Koran….

“I have included some Sanskrit works, scriptures and fundamental literary texts, because of their influence on the Western canon. The immense wealth of ancient Chinese literature is mostly a sphere apart from Western literary tradition and is rarely conveyed adequately in the translations available to us.”
(Bloom, p. 531)

The Ancient Near East

Gilgamesh
Egyptian Book of the Dead
Holy Bible (King James Version)

The Apocrypha
Sayings of the Fathers (Pirke Aboth)

Ancient India (Sanskrit)

Mahabharata
Bhagavad-Gita
Ramayana

The Ancient Greeks

Homer: Iliad

Odyssey

Hesiod: Works and Days
Theogony

Archilochos, Sappho, Alkman

Pindar: Odes

Aeschylus: Oresteia
Seven Against Thebes
Prometheus Bound
Persians
Suppliant Women

Sophocles: Oedipus the King
Oedipus at Colonus
Antigone
Electra
Ajax
Women of Trachis
Philoctetes

Euripides:
Cyclops
Heracles
Alcestis
Hecuba
Bacchae
Orestes
Andromache
Medea
Ion
Hippolytus
Helen
Iphigenia at Aulis

Aristophanes: The Birds
The Clouds
The Frogs
Lysistrata
The Knights
The Wasps
The Assemblywomen

Herodotus: The Histories

Thucydides: The Peloponnesian Wars

The Pre-Socratics (Heraclitus, Empedocles)

Plato: Dialogues

Aristotle: Poetics
Ethics

Hellenistic Greeks

Menander: The Girl from Samos

“Longinus”: On the Sublime

Callimachus: Hymns and Epigrams

Theocritus: Idylls

Plutarch: Lives
Moralia

“Aesop”: Fables

Lucian: Satires

The Romans

Plautus: Pseudolus
The Braggart Soldier
The Rope

Amphitryon

Terence: The Girl from Andros
The Eunuch
The Mother-in-Law

Lucretius: The Way Things Are

Cicero: On the Gods

Horace: Odes
Epistles
Satires

Persius: Satires

Catullus: Attis and Other Poems

Virgil: Aeneid

Eclogues
Georgics

Lucan: Pharsalia

Ovid: Metamorphoses
The Art of Love
Heroides

Juvenal: Satires

Martial: Epigrams

Seneca: Tragedies, particularly Medea and Hercules Furens

Petronius: Satyricon

Apuleius: The Golden Ass

The Middle Ages: Latin, Arabic, and the Vernacular Before Dante

Saint Augustine: City of God

Confessions

The Koran (Al-Qur’an)

The Book of the Thousand Nights and One Night

The Poetic Edda

Snorri Sturluson

The Prose Edda

The Nibelungen Lied

Wolfram von Eschenbach: Parzival

Chrétien de Troyes: Yvain: The Knight of the Lion

Beowulf

The Poem of the Cid

Christine de Pisan: The Book of the City of Ladies

Diego de San Pedro: Prison of Love

B. The Aristocratic Age

“It is a span of five hundred years from Dante’s Divine Comedy through Goethe’s Faust, Part Two [1321-1832], an era that gives us a huge body of reading in five major literatures: Italian, Spanish, English, French, and German. In this and in the remaining lists, I sometimes do not mention individual works by a canonical master, and in other instances I attempt to call attention to authors and books that I consider canonical but rather neglected. From this list onward, many good writers who are not quite central are omitted….”
(Bloom, p. 534)

Italy

Dante: The Divine Comedy
The New Life

Petrarch: Lyric Poems
Selections

Giovanni Boccaccio: The Decameron

Matteo Maria Boiardo: Orlando Innamorato

Ludovico Ariosto: Orlando Furioso

Michelangelo Buonarroti: Sonnets and Madrigals

Niccolò Machiavelli: The Prince
The Mandrake, a Comedy

Leonardo da Vinci: Notebooks

Baldassare Castiglione: The Book of the Courtier

Gaspara Stampa: Sonnets and Madrigals

Giorgio Vasari: Lives of the Painters

Benvenuto Cellini: Autobiography

Torquato Tasso: Jerusalem Delivered

Giordano Bruno: The Expulsion of the Triumphant Beast

Tommaso Campanella: Poems
The City of the Sun

Giambattista Vico: Principles of a New Science

Carlo Goldoni: The Servant of Two Masters

Vittorio Alfieri: Saul

Portugal

Luis de Camoëns: The Lusiads

Antònio Ferreira: Poetry

Spain

Jorge Manrique: Coplas

Fernando de Rojas: La Celestina

Lazarillo de Tormes

Francisco de Quevedo: Visions
Satirical Letter of Censure

Fray Luis de León: Poems

St. John of the Cross: Poems

Luis de Góngora: Sonnets
Soledades

Miguel de Cervantes: Don Quixote
Exemplary Stories

Lope de Vega: La Dorotea
Fuente Ovejuna
Lost in a Mirror
The Knight of Olmedo

Tirso de Molina: The Trickster of Seville

Pedro Calderón de la Barca: Life is a Dream
The Mayor of Zalamea
The Mighty Magician
The Doctor of His Own Honor

Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz: Poems

England and Scotland

Geoffrey Chaucer: The Canterbury Tales
Troilus and Criseyde

Sir Thomas Malory: Le Morte D’Arthur

William Dunbar: Poems

John Skelton: Poems

Sir Thomas More: Utopia

Sir Thomas Wyatt: Poems

Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey: Poems

Sir Philip Sidney: The Countess of Pembroke’s Arcadia
Astrophel and Stella
An Apology for Poetry

Fulke Greville, Lord Brooke: Poems

Edmund Spenser: The Faerie Queene
The Minor Poems

Sir Walter Ralegh: Poems

Christopher Marlowe: Poems and Plays

Michael Drayton: Poems

Samuel Daniel: Poems
A Defence of Ryme

Thomas Nashe: The Unfortunate Traveller

Thomas Kyd: The Spanish Tragedy

William Shakespeare: Plays and Poems

Thomas Campion: Songs

John Donne: Poems
Sermons

Ben Jonson: Poems, Plays, and Masques

Francis Bacon: Essays

Robert Burton: The Anatomy of Melancholy

Sir Thomas Browne: Religio Medici

Hydriotaphia, or Urne-Buriall

The Garden of Cyrus

Thomas Hobbes: Leviathan

Robert Herrick: Poems

Thomas Carew: Poems

Richard Lovelace: Poems

Andrew Marvell: Poems

George Herbert: The Temple

Thomas Traherne: Centuries, Poems, and Thanksgivings

Henry Vaughan: Poetry

John Wilmot, Earl of Rochester: Poems

Richard Crashaw: Poems

Francis Beaumont and John Fletcher: Plays

George Chapman: Comedies, Tragedies, Poems

John Ford: ‘Tis Pity She’s a Whore

John Marston: The Malcontent

John Webster: The White Devil

The Duchess of Malfi

Thomas Middleton and William Rowley: The Changeling

Cyril Tourneur: The Revenger’s Tragedy

Philip Massinger: A New Way to Pay Old Debts

John Bunyan: The Pilgrim’s Progress

Izaak Walton: The Compleat Angler

John Milton: Paradise Lost

Paradise Regained

Lycidas, Comus, and the Minor Poems

Samson Agonistes

Areopagitica

John Aubrey: Brief Lives

Jeremy Taylor: Holy Dying

Samuel Butler: Hudibras

John Dryden: Poetry and Plays
Critical Essays

Thomas Otway: Venice Preserv’d

William Congreve: The Way of the World

Love for Love

Jonathan Swift: A Tale of a Tub

Gulliver’s Travels
Shorter Prose Works
Poems

Sir George Etherege: The Man of Mode

Alexander Pope: Poems

John Gay: The Beggar’s Opera

James Boswell: Life of Johnson
Journals

Samuel Johnson: Works

Edward Gibbon: The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire

Edmund Burke: A Philosophical Enquiry into…the Sublime and Beautiful
Reflections on the Revolution in France

Maurice Morgann: An Essay on the Dramatic Character of Sir John Falstaff

William Collins: Poems

George Farquhar: The Beaux’ Strategem
The Recruiting Officer

William Wycherley: The Country Wife

The Plain Dealer

Christopher Smart: Jubilate Agno
A Song to David

Oliver Goldsmith: The Vicar of Wakefield
She Stoops to Conquer
The Traveller
The Deserted Village

Richard Brinsley Sheridan: The School of Scandal

The Rivals

William Cowper: Poetical Works

George Crabbe: Poetical Works

Daniel Defoe: Moll Flanders

Robinson Crusoe

A Journal of the Plague Year

Samuel Richardson: Clarissa

Pamela
Sir Charles Grandison

Henry Fielding: Joseph Andrews

The History of Tom Jones, a Foundling

Tobias Smollett: The Expedition of Humphry Clinker

The Adventures of Roderick Random

Laurence Sterne: The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy, Gentleman

A Sentimental Journey Through France and Italy

Fanny Burney: Evelina

Joseph Addison and Richard Steele: The Spectator

France

Jean Froissart: Chronicles

The Song of Roland

François Villon: Poems

Michel de Montaigne: Essays

François Rabelais: Gargantua and Pantagruel

Marguerite de Navarre: The Heptameron

Joachim Du Bellay: The Regrets

Maurice Scève: Délie

Pierre Ronsard: Odes, Elegies, Sonnets

Philippe de Commynes: Memoirs

Agrippa d’Aubigné: Les Tragiques

Robert Garnier: Mark Antony
The Jewesses

Pierre Corneille: The Cid

Polyeucte

Nicomède

Horace

Cinna
Rodogune

François de La Rochefoucauld: Maxims

Jean de La Fontaine: Fables

Molière: The Misanthrope

Tartuffe

The School for Wives
The Learned Ladies
Don Juan
School for Husbands
Ridiculous Precieuses
The Would-Be Gentleman
The Miser
The Imaginary Invalid

Blaise Pascal: Pensées

Jacques-Bénigne Bosuet: Funerary Orations

Nicolas Boileau-Despréaux: The Art of Poetry
Lutrin

Jean Racine: Phaedra

Andromache

Britannicus

Athaliah

Pierre Carlet de Marivaux: Seven Comedies

Jean-Jacques Rousseau: The Confessions
Émile
La Nouvelle Héloïse

Voltaire: Zadig
Candide
Letters on England
The Lisbon Earthquake

Abbé Prévost: Manon Lescaut

Madame de La Fayette: The Princess of Cleves

Sébastien-Roch Nicolas de Chamfort: Products of the Perfected Civilization

Denis Diderot: Rameau’s Nephew

Choderlos de Laclos: Dangerous Liaisons

Germany

Erasmus: In Praise of Folly

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe: Faust, Parts One and Two
Dichtung und Wahrheit
Egmont
Elective Affinities

The Sorrows of Young Werther
Poems
Wilhelm Meister’s Apprenticeship
Wilhelm Meister’s Years of Wandering
Italian Journey
Verse Plays
Hermann and Dorothea
Roman Elegies
Venetian Epigrams
West-Eastern Divan

Friedrich Schiller: The Robbers
Mary Stuart

Wallenstein
Don Carlos
On the Naïve and Sentimental in Literature

Gotthold Lessing: Laocoön
Nathan the Wise

Freidrich Hölderlin: Hymns and Fragments
Selected Poems

Heinrich von Kleist: Five Plays

Stories

C. The Democratic Age

“I have located Vico’s Democratic Age in the post-Goethean nineteenth century, when the literature of Italy and Spain ebbs, yielding eminence to England with its renaissance of the Renaissance in Romanticism, and to a lesser degree to France and Germany. This is also the era where the strength of both Russian and American literature begins.”
(Bloom, p. 540)

Italy

Ugo Foscolo : On Sepulchres
Last Letters of Jacopo Ortis
Odes and The Graces

Alessandro Manzoni: The Betrothed
On the Historical Novel

Giacomo Leopardi: Essays and Dialogues
Poems
The Moral Essays

Giuseppe Gioacchino Belli: Roman Sonnets

Giosué Carducci: Hymn to Satan
Barbarian Odes
Rhymes and Rhythms

Giovanni Verga: Little Novels of Sicily
Mastro-Don Gesualdo
The House by the Medlar Tree
The She-Wolf and Other Stories

Spain and Portugal

Gustavo Adolpho Bécquer: Poems

Benito Pérez Galdós: Fortunata and Jacinta

Leopoldo Alas (Clarín): La Regenta

José Maria de Eça de Queirós: The Maias

France

Benjamin Constant: Adolphe
The Red Notebook

François-Auguste-René de Chateaubriand: Attala

René
The Genius of Christianity

Alphonse de Lamartine: Meditations

Alfred de Vigny: Chatterton
Poems

Victor Hugo: The Distance, the Shadows: Selected Poems
Les Misérables

Notre-Dame of Paris
William Shakespeare
The Toilers of the Sea
The End of Satan
God

Alfred de Musset: Poems
Lorenzaccio

Gérard de Nerval: The Chimeras
Sylvie
Aurelia

Théophile Gautier: Mademoiselle de Maupin
Enamels and Cameos

Honoré de Balzac: The Girl with the Golden Eyes
Louis Lambert
The Wild Ass’s Skin

Old Goriot

Cousin Bette

A Harlot High and Low

Eugénie Grandet
Ursule Mirouet

Stendhal: On Love

The Red and the Black

The Charterhouse of Parma

Gustave Flaubert: Madame Bovary

Sentimental Education
Salammbô
A Simple Soul

George Sand: The Haunted Pool

Charles Baudelaire: Flowers of Evil
Paris Spleen

Stéphane Mallarmé: Selected Poetry and Prose

Paul Verlaine: Selected Poems

Arthur Rimbaud: Complete Works

Tristan Corbière: Les Armours Jaunes

Jules Laforgue: Selected Writings

Guy de Maupassant: Selected Short Stories

Émile Zola: Germinal

L’Assommoir

Nana

Scandinavia

Henrik Ibsen: Brand
Peer Gynt
Emperor and Galilean
Hedda Gabler

The Master Builder

The Lady from the Sea

When We Dead Awaken

August Strindberg: To Damascus

Miss Julie
The Father
The Dance of Death
The Ghost Sonata

A Dream Play

Great Britain

Robert Burns: Poems

William Blake: Complete Poetry and Prose

William Wordsworth: Poems
The Prelude

Sir Walter Scott: Waverley

The Heart of Midlothian
Redgauntlet
Old Mortality

Jane Austen: Pride and Prejudice

Emma

Mansfield Park

Persuasion

Samuel Taylor Coleridge: Poems and Prose

Dorothy Wordsworth: The Grasmere Journal

William Hazlitt: Essays and Criticism

Lord Byron: Don Juan

Poems

William Savage Landor: Poems
Imaginary Conversations

Thomas De Quincey: Confessions of an English Opium Eater
Selected Prose

Charles Lamb: Essays

Maria Edgeworth: Castle Rackrent

John Galt: The Entail

Elizabeth Gaskell: Cranford
Mary Barton

North and South

James Hogg: The Private Memoirs and Confessions of a Justified Sinner

Charles Maturin: Melmoth the Wanderer

Percy Bysshe Shelley: Poems
A Defence of Poetry

Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley: Frankenstein

John Clare: Poems

John Keats: Poems and Letters

Thomas Lovell Beddoes: Death’s Jest-Book
Poems

George Darley: Nepenthe
Poems

Thomas Hood: Poems

Thomas Wade: Poems

Robert Browning: Poems
The Ring and the Book

Charles Dickens: The Posthumous Papers of the Pickwick Club

David Copperfield

The Adventures of Oliver Twist

A Tale of Two Cities

Bleak House

Hard Times

Nicholas Nickleby

Dombey and Son

Great Expectations

Martin Chuzzlewit
Christmas Stories
Little Dorrit

Our Mutual Friend

The Mystery of Edwin Drood

Alfred, Lord Tennyson: Poems

Dante Gabriel Rossetti: Poems and Translations

Matthew Arnold: Poems
Essays

Arthur Hugh Clough: Poems

Christina Rossetti: Poems

Thomas Love Peacock: Nightmare Abbey
Gryll Grange

Gerald Manley Hopkins: Poems and Prose

Thomas Carlyle: Selected Prose
Sartor Resartus

John Ruskin: Modern Painters
The Stones of Venice
Unto This Last
The Queen of the Air

Walter Pater: Studies in the History of the Renaissance
Appreciations
Imaginary Portraits
Marius the Epicurean

Edward FitzGerald: The Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam

John Stuart Mill: On Liberty
Autobiography

John Henry Newman: Apologia pro Vita Sua
A Grammar of Assent
The Idea of a University

Anthony Trollope: The Barsetshire Novels
The Palliser Novels
Orley Farm

The Way We Live Now

Lewis Carroll: Complete Works

Edward Lear: Complete Nonsense

George Gissing: New Grub Street

Algernon Charles Swinburne: Poems and Letters

Charlotte Brontë: Jane Eyre

Villette

Emily Brontë: Poems
Wuthering Heights

William Makepeace Thackeray: Vanity Fair

The History of Henry Esmond

George Meredith: Poems
The Egoist

Francis Thompson: Poems

Lionel Johnson: Poems

Robert Bridges: Poems

Gilbert Keith Chesterton: Collected Poems
The Man Who Was Thursday

Samuel Butler: Erewhon

The Way of All Flesh

W. S. Gilbert: Complete Plays of Gilbert and Sullivan
Bab Ballads

Wilkie Collins: The Moonstone

The Woman in White
No Name

Coventry Patmore: Odes

James Thomson (Bysshe Vanolis): The City of the Dreadful Night

Oscar Wilde: Plays

The Picture of Dorian Gray

The Artist as Critic
Letters

John Davidson: Ballads and Songs

Ernest Dowson: Complete Poems

George Eliot: Adam Bede

Silas Marner

The Mill on the Floss

Middlemarch

Daniel Deronda .

Robert Louis Stevenson: Essays
Kidnapped

Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde

Treasure Island
The New Arabian Nights
The Master of Ballantrae
Weir of Hermiston

William Morris: Early Romances
Poems
The Earthly Paradise
The Well at the World’s End
News from Nowhere

Bram Stoker: Dracula

George Macdonald: Lilith
At the Back of the North Wind

Germany

Novalis (Friedrich von Hardenburg): Hymns to the Night
Aphorisms

Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm: Fairy Tales

Eduard Mörike: Selected Poems
Mozart on His Way to Prague

Theodor Storm: Immensee
Poems

Gottfried Keller: Green Henry
Tales

E. T. A. Hoffmann: The Devil’s Elixir
Tales

Jeremias Gotthelf: The Black Spider

Adalbert Stifter: Indian Summer
Tales

Friedrich Schlegel: Criticism and Aphorisms

Georg Büchner: Danton’s Death

Woyzeck

Heinrich Heine: Complete Poems

Richard Wagner: The Ring of the Nibelung

Friedrich Nietzsche: The Birth of Tragedy

Beyond Good and Evil
On the Genealogy of Morals
The Will to Power

Theodor Fontane: Effi Briest

Stefan George: Selected Poems

Russia

Aleksandr Pushkin: Complete Prose Tales
Complete Poetry
Eugene Onegin
Narrative Poems
Boris Godunov

Nikolay Gogol: The Complete Tales
Dead Souls

The Government Inspector

Mikhail Lermontov: Narrative Poems
A Hero of Our Time

Segey Aksakov: A Family Chronicle

Aleksandr Herzen: My Past and Thoughts
From the Other Shore

Ivan Goncharov: The Frigate Pallada
Oblomov

Ivan Turgenev: A Sportsman’s Notebook

A Month in the Country

Fathers and Sons

On the Eve
First Love

Fyodor Dostoevsky: Notes from the Underground

Crime and Punishment

The Idiot

The Possessed (The Devils)

The Brothers Karamazov
Short Novels

Leo Tolstoy: The Cossacks

War and Peace

Anna Karenina
A Confession
The Power of Darkness
Short Novels

Nikolay Leskov: Tales

Aleksandr Ostrovsky: The Storm

Nikolay Chernyshevsky: What is to Be Done?

Aleksandr Blok: The Twelve and Other Poems

Anton Chekhov: The Tales
The Major Plays

The United States

Washington Irving: The Sketch Book

William Cullen Bryant: Collected Poems

James Fenimore Cooper: The Deerslayer

John Greenleaf Whittier
Collected Poems

Ralph Waldo Emerson: Nature
Essays, first and second series
Representative Men
The Conduct of Life
Journals
Poems

Emily Dickinson: Complete Poems

Walt Whitman: Leaves of Grass, first edition
Leaves of Grass, third edition
The Complete Poems
Specimen Days

Nathaniel Hawthorne: The Scarlet Letter
Tales and Sketches
The Marble Faun
Notebooks

Herman Melville: Moby-Dick
The Piazza Tales
Billy Budd
Collected Poems
Clarel

Edgar Allan Poe: Poetry and Tales
Essays and Reviews
The Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym
Eureka

Jones Very: Essays and Poems

Frederick Goddard Tuckerman: The Cricket and Other Poems

Henry David Thoreau: Walden
Poems
Essays

Richard Henry Dana, Jr.: Two Years Before the Mast

Frederick Douglass: Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave

Henry Wadsworth Longfellow: Selected Poems

Sidney Lanier: Poems

Francis Parkman: France and England in North America
The California and Oregon Trail

Henry Adams: The Education of Henry Adams

Mont Saint-Michel and Chartres

Ambrose Bierce: Collected Writings

Louisa May Alcott: Little Women

Charles W. Chesnutt: The Short Fiction

Kate Chopin: The Awakening

William Dean Howells: The Rise of Silas Lapham
A Modern Instance

Stephen Crane: The Red Badge of Courage
Stories and Poems

Henry James: The Portrait of a Lady

The Bostonians
The Princess Casamassima
The Awkward Age
Short Novels and Tales
The Ambassadors

The Wings of the Dove

The Golden Bowl

Harold Frederic: The Damnation of Theron Ware

Mark Twain: Complete Short Stories

The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn
The Devil’s Racetrack
Number Forty-Four: The Mysterious Stranger
Pudd’nhead Wilson
A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur’s Court

William James: The Varieties of Religious Experience
Pragmatism

Frank Norris: The Octopus

Sarah Orne Jewett: The Country of the Pointed Firs and Other Stories

Trumbull Stickney: Poems

D. The Chaotic Age: A Canonical Prophecy

“I am not as confident about this list as the first three. Cultural prophecy is always a mug’s game. Not all of the works here can prove to be canonical; literary overpopulation is a hazard to many among them. But I have neither excluded nor included on the basis of cultural politics of any kind.”
(Bloom, p. 548)

Italy

Luigi Pirandello: Naked Masks: Five Plays

Gabriele D’Annunzio: Maia: In Praise of Life

Dino Campana: Orphic Songs

Umberto Saba: Stories and Recollections
Poems

Giuseppe Tomasi di Lampedusa: The Leopard

Giuseppe Ungaretti: Selected Poems
The Buried Harbour: Selected Poems

Eugenio Montale: The Storm and Other Things: Poems
The Occasions: Poems
Cuttlefish Bones: Poems
Otherwise: Last and First Poems
The Second Life of Art: Selected Essays

Salvatore Quasimodo: Selected Writings: Poems and Discourse on Poetry
[To Give and To Have and Other Poems]

Tommaso Landolfi: Gogol’s Wife and Other Stories

Leonardo Sciascia: Day of the Owl
Equal Danger
The Wine-Dark Sea: Thirteen Stories

Pier Paolo Pasolini: Poems

Cesare Pavese: Hard Labor: Poems
Dialogues with Leucò

Primo Levi: If Not Now, When?
Collected Poems
The Periodic Table

Italo Svevo: The Confession of Zeno
As a Man Grows Older

Giorgio Bassani: The Heron

Natalia Ginzburg: Family

Elio Vittorini: Women of Messina

Alberto Moravia: 1934

Andrea Zanzotto: Selected Poetry

Italo Calvino: Invisible Cities
The Baron in the Trees
If on a Winter’s Night a Traveler
t zero

Antonio Porta: Kisses from Another Dream: Poems

Spain

Miguel de Unamuno: Three Exemplary Novels
Our Lord Don Quixote

Antonio Machado: Selected Poems

Juan Ramón Jiménez: Invisible Reality: Poems

Pedro Salinas: My Voice Because of You: Poems

Jorge Guillén: Guillén on Guillén: The Poetry and the Poet

Vicente Aleixandre: A Longing for the Light: Selected Poems

Federico Garcia Lorca: Selected Poems
Three Tragedies: Blood Wedding, Yerma, The House of Bernardo Alba

Rafael Alberti: The Owl’s Insomnia: Poems

Luis Cernuda: Selected Poems

Miguel Hernández: Selected Poems

Blas de Otero: Selected Poems

Camilo José Cela: The Hive

Juan Goytisolo: Space in Motion

Catalonia

Carles Ribá: Selected Poems

J. V. Foix: Selected Poems

Joan Perucho: Natural History

Merce Rodoreda: The Time of the Doves

Pere Gimferrer: Selected Poems

Salvador Espríu: La Pell de Brau: Poems

Portugal

Fernando Pessoa: The Keeper of Sheep
Poems
Selected Poems
Always Astonished: Selected Poems
The Book of Disquiet

Jorge de Sena: Selected Poems

José Saramago: Baltasar and Blimunda

José Cardoso Pires: Ballad of Dogs’ Beach

Sophia de Mello Breyner: Selected Poems

Eugénio de Andrade: Selected Poems

France

Anatole France: Penguin Island
Thaïs

Alain-Fournier: Le Grand Meaulnes

Marcel Proust: Remembrance of Things Past (In Search of Lost Time)

Andre Gide: The Immoralist
Corydon
Lafcadio’s Adventure (The Caves of the Vatican)
The Journals

Colette: Collected Stories
Retreat from Love

Georges Bataille: Blue of Noon

Louis-Ferdinand Céline: Journey to the End of Night

René Daumal: Mount Analogue

Jean Genet: Our Lady of the Flowers

The Thief’s Journal

The Balcony

Jean Giraudoux: Four Plays

Alfred Jarry: Selected Works

Jean Cocteau: The Infernal Machine and Other Works

Guillaume Apollinaire: Selected Writings

André Breton: Poems
Manifestoes of Surrealism

Paul Valéry: The Art of Poetry
Selected Writings

René Char: Poems

Paul Éluard: Selected Poems

Louis Aragon: Selected Poems

Jean Giono: The Horseman on the Roof

Michel Leiris: Manhood

Raymond Radiguet: Count d’Orgel’s Ball

Jean-Paul Sartre: No Exit
Nausea

Saint Genet

The Words
The Family Idiot: Gustave Flaubert

Simone de Beauvoir: The Second Sex

Albert Camus: The Stranger

The Plague
The Fall
The Rebel

Henri Michaux: Selected Writings

Edmond Jabès: The Book of Questions
Selected Poems

Saint-John Perse: Anabasis
Birds
Exile and Other Poems

Pierre Reverdy: Selected Poems

Tristan Tzara: Seven Dada Manifestoes

Max Jacob: Selected Poems

Pierre-Jean Jouve: Selected Poems

Francis Ponge: Things: Selected Writings

Jacques Prévert: Paroles

Philippe Jacottet: Selected Poems

Charles Péguy: The Mystery of the Charity of Joan of Arc

Bejamin Péret: Selected Poems

Andé Malraux: The Conquerors
The Royal Way
Man’s Fate
Man’s Hope
The Voices of Silence

François Mauriac: Therese
The Desert of Love
The Woman of the Pharisees

Jean Anouilh: Becket

Antigone
Eurydice
The Rehearsal

Eugène Ionesco: The Bald Soprano

The Chairs

The Lesson

Amédée
Victims of Duty
Rhinoceros

Maurice Blanchot: Thomas the Obscure

Pierre Klossowski: The Laws of Hospitality
The Baphomet

Raymond Roussel: Locus Solus

Antonin Artaud: Selected Writings

Claude Lévi-Strauss: Tristes Tropiques

Alain Robbe-Grillet: The Voyeur
Jealousy
In the Labyrinth
The Erasers
Project for a Revolution in New York
For a New Novel

Nathalie Sarraute: The Use of Speech
The Planetarium

Claude Simon: The Grass
The Wind
The Flanders Road

Marguerite Duras: The Lover
Four Novels

Robert Pinget: Fable
The Libera Me Domine
That Voice

Michel Tournier: The Ogre
Friday

Marguerite Yourcenar: Coup de Grace
Memoirs of Hadrian

Jean Follain: Transparence of the World: Poems

Yves Bonnefoy: Words in Stone

Great Britain and Ireland

William Butler Yeats: The Collected Poems
Collected Plays
A Vision
Mythologies

George Bernard Shaw: Major Critical Essays

Heartbreak House

Pygmalion

Saint Joan

Major Barbara
Back to Methuselah

John Millington Synge: Collected Plays

Sean O’Casey: Juno and the Paycock: The Plough and the Stars
The Shadow of a Gunman

George Douglas Brown: House with the Green Shutters

Thomas Hardy: The Well-Beloved
The Woodlanders

The Return of the Native

The Mayor of Casterbridge

Far From the Madding Crowd

Tess of the D’Urbervilles

Jude the Obscure
Collected Poems

Rudyard Kipling: Kim
Collected Stories
Puck of Pook’s Hill
Complete Verse

A. E. Housman: Collected Poems

Max Beerbohm: Zuleika Dobson
Seven Men and Two Others

Joseph Conrad: Lord Jim

The Secret Agent

Nostromo

Under Western Eyes

Victory

Ronald Firbank: Five Novels

Ford Madox Ford: Parade’s End

The Good Soldier

W. Somerset Maugham: Collected Short Stories
The Moon and Sixpence

John Cowper Powys: Wolf Solent
A Glastonbury Romance

Saki (H. H. Munro): The Short Stories

H. G. Wells: The Science Fiction Novels

David Lindsay: A Voyage to Arcturus

Arnold Bennett: The Old Wives’ Tale

Walter De la Mare: Collected Poems
Memoirs of a Midget

Wilfred Owen: Collected Poems

Isaac Rosenberg: Collected Poems

Edward Thomas: Collected Poems

Robert Graves: Collected Poems
King Jesus

Edwin Muir: Collected Poems

David Jones: In Parenthesis
The Anathemata

John Galsworthy: The Forsyte Saga

E. M. Forster: Howards End

A Passage to India

Frank O’Connor: Collected Stories

D. H. Lawrence: Complete Poems
Studies in Classic American Literature
Complete Short Stories
Sons and Lovers

The Rainbow

Women in Love

Virginia Woolf: Mrs. Dalloway

To the Lighthouse

Orlando: A Biography

The Waves

Between the Acts

James Joyce: Dubliners

Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man

Ulysses

Finnegans Wake

Samuel Beckett: Murphy
Watt
Three Novels: Molloy, Malone Dies, The Unnameable

Waiting for Godot
Endgame
Krapp’s Last Tape
How It Is

Elizabeth Bowen: Collected Stories

J. G. Farrell: The Siege of Krishnapur

Henry Green: Nothing
Loving
Party Going

Evelyn Waugh: A Handful of Dust

Scoop

Vile Bodies

Put Out More Flags

Anthony Burgess: Nothing Like the Sun

G. B. Edwards: The Book of Ebenezer Le Page

Iris Murdoch: The Good Apprentice
Bruno’s Dream

Graham Greene: Brighton Rock

The Heart of the Matter

The Power and the Glory

Christopher Isherwood: The Berlin Stories

Norman Douglas: South Wind

Aldous Huxley: Collected Essays
Antic Hay

Point Counter Point

Brave New World

Lawrence Durrell: Alexandria Quartet

William Golding: Pincher Martin

Doris Lessing: The Golden Notebook

Mervyn Peake: The Gormenghast Trilogy

Jeanette Winterson: The Passion

W. H. Auden: Collected Poems

The Dyer’s Hand

Roy Fuller: Collected Poems

Gavin Ewart: Selected Poems

Basil Bunting: Collected Poems

William Empson: Collected Poems
Milton’s God
Some Versions of Pastoral

George Wilson Knight: The Wheel of Fire
The Burning Oracle

R. S. Thomas: Poems

Frank Kermode: The Sense of an Ending

Stevie Smith: Collected Poems

F. T. Prince: Collected Poems

Philip Larkin: Collected Poems

Donald Davie: Selected Poems

Geoffrey Hill: Collected Poems

Jonathan Spence: The Death of Woman Wang
The Memory Palace of Matteo Ricci

Elizabeth Jennings: Selected Poems

Keith Douglas: The Complete Poems

Hugh MacDiarmid: Complete Poems

Louis MacNeice: Collected Poems

Dylan Thomas: The Poems

Nigel Dennis: Cards of Identity

Seamus Heaney: Selected Poems: 1969-1987
Field Work
Station Island

Thomas Kinsella: Peppercanister Poems

Paul Muldoon: Selected Poems

John Montague: Selected Poems

John Arden: Plays

Joe Orton: The Complete Plays

Flann O’Brien: The Dalkey Archive
The Third Policeman

Tom Stoppard: Travesties

Harold Pinter: The Caretaker

The Homecoming

Edward Bond: The Fool

Saved

George Orwell: Collected Essays
1984

Edna O’Brien: A Fanatic Heart

Germany

Hugo von Hofmannsthal: Poems and Verse Plays
Selected Prose
Selected Plays and Libretti

Rainer Maria Rilke: Selected Poetry (including the Duino Elegies)
The Sonnets to Orpheus

The Notebooks of Malte Laurids Brigge
New Poems: First Part and Other Part

Hermann Broch: The Sleepwalkers
The Death of Virgil
Hugo von Hofmannsthal and His Time

Georg Trakl: Selected Poems

Gottfried Benn: Selected Poems

Franz Kafka: Amerika
The Complete Stories
The Blue Octavo Notebook
The Trial
The Diaries
The Castle
Parables, Fragments, Aphorisms

Bertolt Brecht: Poems, 1913-1956

The Threepenny Opera

The Good Woman of Setzuan

Mother Courage and Her Children

Galileo

The Caucasian Chalk Circle

Arthur Schnitzler: Plays and Stories

Frank Wedekind: Lulu Plays
Spring Awakening

Karl Krauss: The Last Days of Mankind

Günter Eich: Moles

Thomas Mann: The Magic Mountain
Stories of Three Decades
Joseph and His Brothers
Doctor Faustus
Confessions of Felix Krull, Confidence Man

Alfred Döblin: Berlin Alexanderplatz

Hermann Hesse: The Glass Bead Game (Magister Ludi)
Narcissus and Goldmund

Robert Musil: Young Törless
The Man Without Qualities

Joseph Roth: The Radetzky March

Paul Celan: Poems

Thomas Bernhard: Woodcutters

Heinrich Böll: Billiards at Half-Past Nine

Ingeborg Bachmann: In the Storm of Roses

Hans Magnus Enzensberger: Poems for People Who Don’t Read Poems

Walter Benjamin: Illuminations

Robert Walser: Selected Stories

Christa Wolf: Cassandra

Peter Handke: Slow Homecoming

Max Frisch: I’m Not Stiller

Man in the Holocene

Günter Grass: The Tin Drum

The Flounder

Friedrich Dürrenmatt: The Visit

Johannes Bobrowski: Shadow Lands

Russia

Anna Akhmatova: Poems

Leonid Andreyev: Selected Tales

Andrey Bely: Petersburg

Osip Mandelshtam: Selected Poems

Velimir Khlebnikov: The King of Time

Vladimir Mayakovsky: The Bedbug and Selected Poetry

Mikhail Bulgakov: The Master and the Margarita

Mikhail Kuzmin: Alexandrian Songs

Maksim Gorky: Reminiscences of Tolstoy, Chekhov, and Andreev
Autobiography

Ivan Bunin: Selected Stories

Isaac Babel: Collected Stories

Boris Pasternak: Doctor Zhivago
Selected Poems

Yury Olesha: Envy

Marina Tsvetayeva: Selected Poems

Mikhail Zoshchenko: Nervous People and Other Satires

Andrei Platonov: The Foundation Pit

Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn: One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich
The Cancer Ward
The Gulag Archipelago
August 1914

Joesph Brodsky: A Part of Speech: Poems

Scandinavia

Isak Dinesen: Winter’s Tales

Seven Gothic Tales

Martin Andersen Nexø: Pelle the Conqueror

Knut Hamsun: Hunger
Pan

Sigrid Undset: Kristin Lavransdatter

Gunnar Ekelöf: Guide to the Underworld

Tomas Tranströmer: Selected Poems

Pär Lagerkvist: Barabbas

Lars Gustafsson: Selected Poems

Serbo-Croat

Ivo Andric: The Bridge on the Drina

Vasko Popa: Selected Poems

Danilo Kis: A Tomb for Boris Davidovich

Czech

Karel Capek: War with the Newts
R.U.R.

Vaclav Havel: Largo Desolato

Milan Kundera: The Unbearable Lightness of Being

Jaroslav Seifert: Selected Poetry

Miroslav Holub: The Fly

Polish

Bruno Schulz: The Street of Crocodiles
Sanatorium Under the Sign of the Hourglass

Czeslaw Milosz: Selected Poems

Witold Gombrowicz: Three Novels

Stanislaw Lem: The Investigation
Solaris

Zbigniew Herbert: Selected Poems

Adam Zagajewski: Tremor

Hungarian

Attila József: Perched on Nothing’s Branch

Ferenc Juhasz: Selected Poems

Laszlo Németh: Guilt

Modern Greek

C. P. Cavafy: Collected Poems

George Seferis: Collected Poems

Nikos Kazantzakis: The Greek Passion
The Odyssey: A Modern Sequel

Yannis Ritsos: Exile and Return

Odysseas Elytis: What I Love: Selected Poems

Angelos Sikelianos: Selected Poems

Yiddish

Sholem Aleichem: Tevye the Dairyman and The Railroad Stories
The Nightingale

Mendele Mokher Seforim: The Travels and Adventures of Benjamin the Third

I. L. Peretz: Selected Stories

Jacob Glatstein: Selected Poems

Moshe-Leib Halpern: Selected Poems

H. Leivick (Leivick Halpern): Selected Poems

Israel Joshua Singer: The Brothers Ashkenazi
Yoshe Kalb

Chaim Grade: The Yeshiva

S. Ansky: The Dybbuk

Mani Leib: Selected Poems

Sholem Asch: East River

Isaac Bashevis Singer: Collected Stories
In My Father’s Court
The Manor, the Estate, the Family Moskat
Satan in Goray

Hebrew

Hayyim Nahman Bialik: Shirot Bialik: The Epic Poems

S. Y. Agnon: In the Heart of the Seas
Twenty-One Stories

Aharon Appelfeld: The Immortal Bartfuss
Badenheim 1939

Yaakov Shabtai: Past Continuous

Yehuda Amichai: Selected Poetry
Travels

A. B. Yehoshua: A Late Divorce

Amos Oz: A Perfect Peace

T. Carmi: At the Stone of Losses

Nathan Zach: Selected Poems

Dalia Ravikovitch: A Dress of Fire

Dan Pagis: Selected Poems

David Shahar: The Palace of Shattered Vessels

David Grossman: See Under: Love

Yoram Kaniuk: His Daughter

Arabic

Najib Mahfuz: Midaq Alley
Fountain and Tomb
Miramar

Adunis: Selected Poems

Mahmud Darwish: The Music of Human Flesh

Taha Husayn: An Egyptian Childhood

Latin America

Rubén Dário: Selected Poetry

Jorge Luis Borges: The Aleph and Other Stories
Dreamtigers (The Maker)

Ficciones

Labyrinths

A Personal Anthology

Alejo Carpentier: Explosion in a Cathedral
The Lost Steps
Reasons of State
The Kingdom of This World

Guillermo Cabrera Infante: Three Trapped Tigers
View of Dawn in the Tropics

Severo Sarduy: Maitreya

Reinaldo Arenas: The Ill-Fated Peregrinations of Fray Servando

Pablo Neruda: Canto General
Residence on Earth
Twenty Love Poems and a Song of Despair
Fully Empowered
Selected Poems

Nicolás Guillén: Selected Poems

Octavio Paz: The Collected Poems
The Labyrinth of Solitude

César Vallejo: Selected Poems
Spain, Take This Cup from Me

Miguel Angel Asturias: Men of Maize

José Lezama Lima: Paradiso

José Donoso: The Obscene Bird of Night

Julio Cortázar: Hopscotch
All Fires the Fire

Blow-up and Other Stories

Gabriel García Márquez: One Hundred Years of Solitude

Love in the Time of Cholera

Mario Vargas Llosa: The War of the End of the World

Carlos Fuentes: A Change of Skin
Terra Nostra

Carlos Drummond de Andrade: Travelling in the Family

The West Indies

C. L. R. James: The Black Jacobins
The Future in the Present

V. S. Naipaul: A Bend in the River

A House for Mr. Biswas

Derek Walcott: Collected Poems

Wilson Harris: The Guyana Quartet

Michael Thelwell: The Harder They Come

Aimé Césaire: Collected Poetry

Africa

Chinua Achebe: Things Fall Apart
Arrow of God
No Longer at Ease

Wole Soyinka: A Dance of the Forest

Amos Tutuola: The Palm-Wine Drinkard and His Dead Palm-Wine Tapster in the Dead’s Town

Christopher Okigbo: Labyrinths, with Path of Thunder

John Pepper Clark (-Bekederemo): Casualties: Poems

Ayi K. Armah: The Beautyful Ones Are Not Yet Born

Wa Thiong’o Ngugi: A Grain of Wheat

Gabriel Okara: The Fisherman’s Invocation

Nadine Gordimer: Collected Stories

J. M. Coetzee: Foe

Athol Fugard: A Lesson from Aloes

Léopold S. Senghor: Selected Poems

India (in English)

R. K. Narayan: The Guide

Salman Rushdie: Midnight’s Children

Ruth Prawer Jhabvala: Heat and Dust

Canada

Malcolm Lowry: Under the Volcano

Robertson Davies: The Deptford Trilogy

The Rebel Angels

Alice Munro: Something I’ve Been Meaning to Tell You

Northrop Frye: Fables of Identity

Anne Hébert: Selected Poems

Jay Macpherson: Poems Twice Told

Margaret Atwood: Surfacing

Daryl Hine: Selected Poems

Australia and New Zealand

Miles (Stella) Franklin: My Brilliant Career

Katherine Mansfield: The Short Stories

A. D. Hope: Collected Poems

Patrick White: Riders in the Chariot
A Fringe of Leaves
Voss

Christina Stead: The Man Who Loved Children

Judith Wright: Selected Poems

Les A. Murray: The Rabbiter’s Bounty: Collected Poems

Thomas Keneally: The Playmaker

Schindler’s List

David Malouf: An Imaginary Life

Kevin Hart: Peniel and Other Poems

Peter Carey: Oscar and Lucinda
Illywhacker

The United States

Edwin Arlington Robinson: Selected Poems

Robert Frost: The Poetry

Edith Wharton: Collected Short Stories
The Age of Innocence

Ethan Frome

The House of Mirth

The Custom of the Country

Willa Cather: My Ántonia
The Professor’s House
A Lost Lady

Gertrude Stein: Three Lives
The Geographical History of America
The Making of Americans
Tender Buttons

Wallace Stevens: Collected Poems
The Necessary Angel
Opus Posthumous
The Palm at the End of the Mind

Vachel Lindsay: Collected Poems

Edgar Lee Masters: Spoon River Anthology

Theodore Dreiser: Sister Carrie

An American Tragedy

Sherwood Anderson: Winesburg, Ohio
Death in the Woods and Other Stories

Sinclair Lewis: Babbitt

It Can’t Happen Here

Elinor Wylie: Last Poems

William Carlos Williams: Spring and All
Paterson
Collected Poems

Ezra Pound: Personae: Collected Poems
The Cantos
Literary Essays

Robinson Jeffers: Selected Poems

Marianne Moore: Complete Poems

Hilda Doolittle (H.D.): Selected Poems

John Crowe Ransom: Selected Poems

T. S. Eliot: The Complete Poems and Plays
Selected Essays

Katherine Anne Porter: Collected Stories

Jean Toomer: Cane

John Dos Passos: U.S.A.

Conrad Aiken: Collected Poems

Eugene O’Neill: Lazarus Laughed
The Iceman Cometh
Long Day’s Journey Into Night

e. e. cummings: Complete Poems

John B. Wheelwright: Collected Poems

Robert Fitzgerald: Spring Shade: Poems

Louise Bogan: The Blue Estuaries: Selected Poems

Léonie Adams: Poems: A Selection

Hart Crane: Complete Poems and Selected Letters and Prose

Allen Tate: Collected Poems

F. Scott Fitzgerald: Babylon Revisited and Other Stories
The Great Gatsby: Tender is the Night

William Faulkner: As I Lay Dying
Sanctuary
Light in August

Absalom, Absalom!

The Sound and the Fury

The Wild Palms
The Collected Stories
The Hamlet

Ernest Hemingway: Complete Short Stories

A Farewell to Arms

The Sun Also Rises
The Garden of Eden

John Steinbeck: The Grapes of Wrath

Zora Neale Hurston: Their Eyes Were Watching God

Nathanael West: Miss Lonelyhearts

A Cool Million

The Day of the Locust

Richard Wright: Native Son
Black Boy

Eudora Welty: Collected Stories

Delta Wedding
The Robber Bridegroom
The Ponder Heart

Langston Hughes: Selected Poems
The Big Sea
I Wonder as I Wander

Edmund Wilson: The Shores of Light
Patriotic Gore

Kenneth Burke: Counter-statement
A Rhetoric of Motives

Joseph Mitchell: Up in the Old Hotel

Abraham Cahan: The Rise of David Levinsky

Kay Boyle: Three Short Novels

Ellen Glasgow: Barren Ground
Vein of Iron

John P. Marquand: H. M. Pulham, Esquire

John O’Hara: Collected Stories
Appointment in Samarra

Henry Roth: Call It Sleep

Thornton Wilder: Three Plays

Robert Penn Warren: All the King’s Men
World Enough and Time
Selected Poems

Delmore Schwartz: Selected Poems: Summer Knowledge

Weldon Kees: Collected Poems

Elizabeth Bishop: The Complete Poems

John Berryman: Collected Poems

Paul Bowles: The Sheltering Sky

Randall Jarrell: Complete Poems

Charles Olson: The Maximus Poems
Collected Poems

Robert Hayden: Collected Poems

Robert Lowell: Collected Poems

Theodore Roethke: Collected Poems
Straw for the Fire

James Agee: Permit Me Voyage
Let Us Now Praise Famous Men

Jean Garrigue: Selected Poems

May Swenson: New & Selected Things Taking Place
In Other Words

Robert Duncan: Bending the Bow

Richard Wilbur: New and Collected Poems

Richard Eberhart: Collected Poems

M. B. Tolson: Harlem Gallery

Kenneth Koch: Seasons on Earth

Frank O’ Hara: Selected Poems

James Schuyler: Collected Poems

James Baldwin: The Price of a Ticket

Saul Bellow: Seize the Day

The Adventures of Augie March

Herzog

John Cheever: The Stories

Bullet Park

Ralph Ellison: Invisible Man

Truman Capote: In Cold Blood

Carson McCullers: The Ballad of the Sad Cafe

The Heart is a Lonely Hunter

Flannery O’Connor: Complete Stories
The Violent Bear It Away
Wise Blood

Vladimir Nabokov: Lolita

Pale Fire

Gore Vidal: Myra Breckenridge

Lincoln

William Styron: The Long March

J. D. Salinger: The Catcher in the Rye

Nine Stories

Wright Morris: Ceremony in Lone Tree

Bernard Malamud: The Stories
The Fixer

Norman Mailer: Advertisements for Myself

The Executioner’s Song

Ancient Evenings

John Hawkes: The Cannibal
Second Skin

William Gaddis: The Recognitions

Tennessee Williams: The Glass Menagerie

A Streetcar Named Desire

Summer and Smoke

Arthur Miller: Death of a Salesman

Edwin Justus Mayer: Children of Darkness

Harold Brodkey: Stories in an Almost Classical Mode

Ursula K. LeGuin: The Left Hand of Darkness

Raymond Carver: Where I’m Calling From

Robert Coover: Spanking the Maid

Don DeLillo: White Noise
Libra
Running Dog
Mao II

John Crowley: Little, Big

Aegypt

Love and Sleep

Guy Davenport: Tatlin!

James Dickey: The Early Motion
The Central Motion

E. L. Doctorow: The Book of Daniel
World’s Fair

Stanley Elkin: The Living End

William H. Gass: In the Heart of the Heart of the Country

Omensetter’s Luck

Russell Hoban: Riddley Walker

Denis Johnson: Angels
Fiskadoro

Jesus’ Son

Cormac McCarthy: Blood Meridian
Suttree
Child of God

William Kennedy: Ironweed
The Albany Cycle

Toni Morrison: Song of Solomon

Gloria Naylor: The Women of Brewster Place

Joyce Carol Oates: Them

Walker Percy: The Moviegoer

Grace Paley: The Little Disturbances of Man

Thomas Pynchon: V.
The Crying of Lot 49

Gravity’s Rainbow

Cynthia Ozick: Envy, or Yiddish in America
The Messiah of Stockholm

Ishmael Reed: Mumbo Jumbo

Philip Roth: Portnoy’s Complaint
My Life as a Man
Zuckerman Bound: A Trilogy and Epilogue
The Counterlife
Patrimony

Operation Shylock

James Salter: Solo Faces
Light Years

Robert Stone: Dog Soldiers
A Flag for Sunrise

John Barth: The Floating Opera
The End of the Road
The Sot-Weed Factor

Walter Abish: Alphabetical Africa
How German Is It
Eclipse Fever
I Am the Dust Under Your Feet

Donald Barthelme: Forty Stories

The Dead Father

Thomas M. Disch: On Wings of Song

Paul Theroux: The Mosquito Coast

John Updike: The Witches of Eastwick

Kurt Vonnegut, Jr.: Cat’s Cradle

Edmund White: Forgetting Elena

Nocturnes for the King of Naples

James McCourt: Time Remaining

James Wilcox: Modern Baptists

A. R. Ammons: Collected Poems
Selected Longer Poems
Sphere: The Form of a Motion

John Ashbery: The Double Dream of Spring
Houseboat Days
Selected Poems
Flow Chart
Hotel Lautréamont
And the Stars Were Shining

David Mamet: American Buffalo
Speed-the-Plow

David Rabe: Streamers

Sam Shepard: Seven Plays

August Wilson: Fences
Joe Turner’s Come and Gone

Anthony Hecht: Collected Earlier Poems

Edgar Bowers: Living Together: New and Selected Poems

Donald Justice: Selected Poems

James Merrill: From the First Nine
The Changing Light at Sandover

W. S. Merwin: Selected Poems

James Wright: Above the River: The Complete Poems

Galway Kinnell: Selected Poems

Philip Levine: Selected Poems

Irving Feldman: New and Selected Poems

Donald Hall: The One Day
Old and New Poems

Alvin Feinman: Poems

Richard Howard: Untitled Subjects
Findings

John Hollander: Reflections on Espionage
Selected Poetry
Tesserae

Gary Snyder: No Nature: New and Selected Poems

Charles Simic: Selected Poems

Mark Strand: Selected Poems
The Continuous Life
Dark Harbor

Charles Wright: The World of the Ten Thousand Things

Jay Wright: Dimensions of History
The Double Invention of Komo
Selected Poems
Elaine’s Book
Boleros

Amy Clampitt: Westward

Allen Grossman: The Ether Dome and Other Poems: New and Selected

Howard Moss: New Selected Poems

James Applewhite: River Writing: An Eno Journal

J. D. McClatchy: The Rest of the Way

Alfred Corn: A Call in the Midst of the Crowd

Douglas Crase: The Revisionist

Rita Dove: Selected Poems

Thylias Moss: Small Congregations: New and Selected Poems

Edward Hirsch: Earthly Measures

Tony Kushner: Angels in America

Source: Bloom, Harold. The Western Canon: The Books and School of the Ages. Appendixes. New York: Harcourt Brace & Company, 1994. © 1994 by Harold Bloom.



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