A satsuma orange is a variety of a Mandarin Orange.
The Mandarin orange or mandarin is a small citrus tree (Citrus reticulata) with fruit resembling the orange. The fruit is oblate, rather than spherical, and roughly resembles a pumpkin in shape. Mandarin oranges are usually eaten plain, or in fruit salads. Specifically reddish orange mandarin cultivars can be marketed as tangerines, but this is not a botanical classification.
The tree is more tolerant to drought than the fruit. The mandarin is tender, and is damaged easily by cold. It can be grown in tropical and subtropical areas. In the United States, they are grown in Florida, Texas, South Carolina, Arizona, and California.
Satsuma is said to be the orange of Japan since this country is the leading cultivator of this citrus fruit. Many people call it a tangerine type of orange, but most people prefer to call it a satsuma Mandarin, which is botanically identified as Citrus unshiu marcovitch.
Home gardeners generally prefer satsuma oranges because of their small size, sweet and juicy taste and easy peeling technique.
The origin of satsuma oranges is perhaps China, but 700 years ago, it was reported in Japan, which is now the dominating satsuma orange market. This citrus fruit is preferably grown in the cool subtropical regions of Japan, Spain, central China, Turkey, Russia, South Africa, South America and in California and Florida.
Satsuma oranges have a very good cold tolerance system. They can survive in temperatures as low as 15 degree Celsius.
Satsuma trees are not very large, are more or less thornless with less foliage and grow in an open habitat. Leaves are large, green, lanceolate and flowers are white. The fruit is a medium to small shaped sphere, the flesh is brilliant reddish orange, tender, and melts with a mild acidic flavor.
The season for satsuma oranges is usually November-December. Once the fruit is ripe, it is too strong for the branch to hold. It should be picked soon and stored well. However, storing satsuma is not a problem since it has a tremendous cold tolerance.
While consuming fresh satsuma is always advisable, in Japan, China, and Spain it is quite popular in the form of canned juice. Sometimes, satsuma juice is blended with orange juice to improve the color. It can also be used in salad dressings and as an ingredient with poultry dishes.
Like all other citrus fruits, satsuma is an excellent source of vitamin C and is enriched with fiber and folate.
The mandarin has many names, some of which actually refer to crosses between the mandarin and another citrus fruit. Most canned mandarins are of the satsuma variety, of which there are over 200 cultivars. SATSUMAS are known as mikan in Japan. One of the more well-known satsuma cultivars is the “Owari”, which ripens during the late fall season in the Northern Hemisphere. Clementines, however, have displaced satsumas in many markets, and are becoming the most important commercial mandarin variety.
The mandarin is easily peeled with the fingers, starting at the thin rind covering the depression at the top of the fruit, and can be easily spilt into even segments without spilling juice. This makes it convienient to eat, as one doesn’t require utensils to peel or cut the fruit.
The tangor, which is also called the temple orange, is a cross between the mandarin and the common orange. Its thin rind is easy to peel; and its pale orange pulp is spicy, full-flavored, and tart.
The rangpur is a cross between the mandarin and the lemon.
Citrus fruit varieties are usually self-fertile (needing a bee only to move pollen within the same flower) or parthenocarpic (not needing pollination and therefore seedless) (such as satsumas). Blossoms from the Dancy cultivar, for example, are an exception. They are self sterile, therefore must have a pollenizer variety to supply pollen, and a high bee population to make a good crop. Furthermore, some varieties, notably clementines, are usually seed free, but will develop seeds if cross-pollinated with a seeded citrus. Thus, great efforts are taken to isolate clementine orchards from any seeded citrus varieties.
The dried peel of the fruit of C. Reticulata is used in the regulation of ch’i in Traditional Chinese medicine
The peel is also used to treat abdominal distention, enhance digestion, and to reduce phlegm.
Caramelized Satsuma Pancakes
For the pancakes
75g/3oz plain flour
150ml/ 1/4 pint milk
vegetable oil, to brush
For the caramelized satsuma
55g/2oz caster sugar
30g/1oz unsalted butter
1 Satsuma, peeled and segmented
1 miniature bottle of Grand Marnier
2 tbsp heavy cream
6-8 scoops of vanilla ice-cream, to serve
heavy cream, to drizzle
powdered sugar, to dust
1. To make the pancakes mix the flour and eggs into a bowl and, stirring all the time, add enough milk to give a smooth batter the consistency of double cream.
2. Heat a small non-stick frying pan brushed with a little vegetable oil and ladle the batter into the pan, swirling the pan to evenly spread.
3. Gently fry for 1-2 minutes each side, tossing to turn.
4. Repeat with the remaining batter to make 6-8 pancakes.
5. To make the caramel, place the sugar in a heavy-based pan and cook over a low heat until dissolved and a caramel has formed.
6. Add the butter and satsuma segments and shake the pan until the segments are well coated in the caramel.
7. Pour the grand marnier and cream into the pan and cook gently until evenly dispersed and slightly thickened, swirling the pan occasionally.
8. Place the pancakes onto serving plates and place a scoop of ice cream in the centre. Fold in half and then half again.
9. Pour the satsuma caramel over the pancakes.
10. Serve drizzled with cream and with a dusting of icing sugar.
recipe from http://www.bbc.co.uk/food
http://www.millerscitrusgrove.com/ 7 years ago